Analysis

The 10 Supranational Settlement Blocs: Where Citizenship in One Country Lets You Live in Others


As a reader of IMI, you already know that one of the things that make European citizenships so sought-after is that once you become a national of one of the countries in the European Union (or its EEA cousins Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein), you also get the right to freely settle in any of the 30 countries in the group.

But such groups – which we’ll call Supranational Settlement Blocs (SSBs) – are not unique to Europe: There are at least ten SSBs worldwide, each of which gives citizens of one member country the right to live in all the others.

In this article, we'll go through each of them, starting with the most familiar one:

1. The EU/EEA Settlement Bloc

Consisting of the 27 European Union countries plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway, this is the world’s largest SSB in terms of number of countries covered. Citizens of each participating state can freely settle in the others without needing visas or permits.

Participating countries:

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden

Switzerland, while not a member of the EU or EEA, is part of the European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA) and has a series of bilateral treaties with the EU that allow for the free (short-term) movement of EU/EEA Bloc citizens through Switzerland. However, even EU/EEA nationals will need to obtain a residence permit to remain in Switzerland for more than three months.

EU/EEA Bloc facts and figures

  • Bloc states: 30
  • Bloc population: 463 million
  • Bloc area: 4.6 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: about 17% of world

2. The MERCOSUR-RA Settlement Bloc

Stretched across 16.4 million km², the Mercosur Residence Agreement SSB is the world’s largest in terms of area covered.

The agreement gives the citizens of each participating state the right to obtain residency in the others as long as they can demonstrate a clean criminal record.

The individual must apply for an initial two-year residence permit (to which he has a right), which he can subsequently convert to permanent status and eventually citizenship.

Participating states:

  • Argentina
  • Bolivia (accession pending)
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay

Note that not all Mercosur member countries are signatories to the Mercosur Residence Agreement, that Bolivia is still in the process of accession, and that Venezuela is suspended.

MERCOSUR-RA Bloc facts and figures

  • Bloc states: 9
  • Bloc population: 404 million
  • Bloc area: 16.4 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: about 4% of world

3. The CAIRCOM-CSME Settlement Bloc

Just as not all Mercosur countries are signatories to the Residency Agreement, not all Caricom states are part of the Single Market & Economy (CSME) agreement.

While comprising 12 countries, the Caricom SME covers an area of just 0.42 million km², a combined population of just 7 million, and an aggregate GDP of just over $60 billion, making it the smallest SSB on our list.

Note also that the right to settle across the bloc is limited to those who can obtain a “Skill Certificate” in one of the member countries, which can restrict the movement of unskilled labor.

Participating states:

  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Barbados
  • Belize
  • Dominica
  • Grenada
  • Guyana
  • Jamaica
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Suriname
  • Trinidad and Tobago

CARICOM-CSME Bloc facts and figures

  • Bloc states: 12
  • Bloc population: 7 million
  • Bloc area: 0.42 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: about 0.06% of world

4. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Settlement Bloc

While subject to occasional political disruptions, the Gulf Cooperation Council allows for free movement and settlement of its nationals across the bloc. Citizens of each participating state can freely reside in the others without the need for visas or permits.

The bloc is home to 58 million, about two-thirds of whom live in Saudi Arabia.

Participating states:

  • Bahrain
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • United Arab Emirates

GCC Bloc facts and figures

  • Bloc states: 6
  • Bloc population: 58 million
  • Bloc area: 2.6 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: about 2% of world

5. The Nordic Passport Union (NPU) Settlement Bloc

Consisting of the culturally and (except for Finland) linguistically affiliated Nordic countries, the NPU is the oldest SSB on our list, dating back to the 1950s.

Citizens of each participating state can freely settle in the others without the need for visas or permits.

Note, however, that because all the NPU countries are also members of both the European Economic Area and Schengen, the NPU is mostly redundant from the perspective of settlement rights.

Participating states:

  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • Iceland
  • Norway
  • Sweden

NPU Bloc facts and figures

  • Bloc states: 6
  • Bloc population: 27 million
  • Bloc area: 1.3 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: about 2% of world

6. The Common Travel Area (CTA) Settlement Bloc

The CTA SSB allows the citizens of Ireland and the United Kingdom (including its crown dependencies Guernsey, Jersey, and the Isle of Man) to freely move and settle anywhere within the bloc.

Holding renewed relevance in the wake of Brexit, this SSB is home to some 73 million people and a combined GDP of $3.7 trillion.

A message from our partners
June 3rd ad version

Participating states:

  • Guernsey
  • Ireland
  • Isle of Man
  • Jersey
  • United Kingdom

CTA Bloc facts and figures

  • Bloc states: 5
  • Bloc population: 73 million
  • Bloc area: 0.31 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: about 4% of world

7. The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement (TTTA) Settlement Bloc

The TTA SSB allows Australians and New Zealanders to settle freely in each other’s countries without any need for special permits or visas.

New Zealand, in fact, extends the same courtesy also to permanent residents of Australia.

Participating states:

  • Australia
  • New Zealand

TTTA Bloc facts and figures

  • Bloc states: 2
  • Bloc population: 33 million
  • Bloc area: 8 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: about 2% of world

8. The Compact of Free Association (CoFA) Settlement Bloc

A legacy of the US trusteeship of certain Pacific island nations in the wake of WWII, Americans are free to reside indefinitely in the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and Palau - and vice versa. Note, however, that nationals of the mentioned Pacific countries are only permitted to travel to the US and apply for admission as non-immigrants as long as they are natural-born citizens or acquired citizenship in 1986.

Participating states:

  • Marshall Islands
  • Micronesia
  • Palau
  • United States

CoFA Bloc facts and figures:

  • Bloc states: 4
  • Bloc population: 340 million
  • Bloc area: 9.8 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: $26.5 trillion

9. The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) Settlement Bloc

Citizens of the EAEU member states generally have the right to freely move (visa-free and often using only national IDs) and reside within the territories of each member state. 

While they don’t need work permits or visas to visit or remain in each others’ countries, they may still need to register longer stays with local authorities.

Detailed regulations regarding access to social services and similar vary somewhat between member states.

Participating states:

  • Armenia
  • Belarus
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Russia

CoFA Bloc facts and figures:

  • Bloc states: 5
  • Bloc population: 183 million
  • Bloc area: 20 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: $2 trillion

10. The Andean Community (CAN) Settlement Bloc

Citizens of the Comunidad Andina (CAN) countries can enter each others’ countries without a visa and using only national ID as identification.

Moreover, upon presenting valid identity documents and police certificate, citizens of each country can obtain a two-year temporary residence permit.

Those who additionally demonstrate a legal means of livelihood for themselves and their family members may obtain a permanent residence permit from the outset, without first going through the two-year temporary residence period. 

Similar to the Nordic Passport Union, the CAN SSB is an SSB within an SSB: All CAN countries are also members of MERCOSUR’s residence agreement (accession pending for Bolivia). This provides another layer of guaranteed access to the Andean countries, should the MERCOSUR residence agreement undergo fragmentation.

Participating states:

  • Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru

CoFA Bloc facts and figures:

  • Bloc states: 4
  • Bloc population: 115 million
  • Bloc area: 4 million km²
  • Bloc GDP: $0.6 trillion



How to Maximize Global Access Through Citizenship in Supranational Settlement Blocs

How might you maximize worldwide settlement rights by strategically acquiring citizenships in the various blocs?

We'll exclude the CoFA bloc from consideration since it only applies to natural-born citizenships.

To maximize for the number of countries you'd gain a right to settle in, you should acquire bloc citizenships in the following order:

  • EU/EEA citizenship - Total: 30 countries
  • CARICOM - Total: 42 countries
  • MERCOSUR - Total: 51 countries
  • GCC - Total: 57 countries
  • CTA* - Total: 62 countries
  • EUEA - Total: 67 countries
  • CoFA - Total: 71 countries
  • TTTA - Total: 73 countries (37% of all countries)

*unnecessary if your EU citizenship was Irish

There’s no marginal benefit to be garnered by getting an NPU or CAN citizenship if you already hold an EU/EEA or Mercosur citizenship, respectively.

To maximize for square kilometers accessible, you should gain bloc citizenship in the following order:

  • EAEU citizenship - Total 20 million km²
  • MERCOSUR citizenship - Total: 36 million km²
  • CoFA citizenship - Total: 46 million km²
  • TTTA - Total: 54 million km²
  • EU/EEA - Total: 59 million km²
  • GCC - Total: 62 million km²
  • CARICOM - Total: 63 million km²
  • CTA - Total: 64 million km²

This approach would give you access to 42% of the world’s land area.

What if you want to maximize for economic access? In that case, you should acquire bloc citizenship according to GDP, as such:

  • CoFA citizenship - Total: $27 trillion
  • EU/EEA citizenship - Total: $44 trillion
  • MERCOSUR citizenship - Total: $48 trillion
  • CTA citizenship - Total: $52 trillion
  • GCC citizenship - Total: $54 trillion
  • EAEU citizenship - Total: $56 trillion
  • TTTA citizenship - Total: $58 trillion
  • CARICOM citizenship - Total: $58 trillion

This would give you settlement rights in countries representing nearly 60% of global GDP.

Become an IMI Pro today

For committed professionals
Monthly €99 or €840 per year (30% discount)
  • Get Your IMI Pro profile page in IMI
  • Access to IMI Data Center
  • Access to IMI Private Briefings
  • Unlimited articles
  • IMI Citizenship Catalog
  • IMI Reports included
  • Watch members-only interviews
  • Advance invitation to IMI Events

Explore IMI's Tools and Resources

>> See all IMI tools and resources