From Saint Kitts & Nevis in 1984 to Jordan, Moldova, and Montenegro in 2018; we’ve made a step-by-step guide to the history of citizenship by investment programs.
We’ve also expanded it to include historical economic citizenship programs that no longer exist, such as the Irish Economic Citizenship Programme which existed between 1988 and 1998 (although according to some historical accounts it may have existed in some form already since 1984), as well as the Belize Economic Citizenship Investment Programme, which opened in 1985 and was suspended in 2002.
The infographic includes only formal citizenship by investment programs; countries that have legal provisions allowing the acquisition of citizenship through vaguely defined criteria of “exceptional contribution” or “special interest” and so on – such as Austria, Cambodia, or Cape Verde – but do not have standardized requirements and procedures, have not been defined as CIPs.
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Christian Henrik Nesheim is the founder and editor of Investment Migration Insider, the #1 magazine – online or offline – for residency and citizenship by investment. He is an internationally recognized expert, speaker, documentary producer, and writer on the subject of investment migration, whose work is cited in the Economist, Bloomberg, Fortune, Forbes, Newsweek, and Business Insider. Norwegian by birth, Christian has spent the last 14 years in the United States, China, and Spain.