40 years have passed since countries first began selling citizenships (at least in the modern era). We’ve made a step-by-step guide to the history of citizenship by investment programs.
The infographic, originally published in June 2017, has been updated several times, most recently in May 2022 to include a number of historical, semi-formal CIPs from the Asia-Pacific region, as well as to reflect the most recent changes among European and African CIPs.
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Christian Henrik Nesheim is the founder and editor of Investment Migration Insider, the #1 magazine – online or offline – for residency and citizenship by investment. He is an internationally recognized expert, speaker, documentary producer, and writer on the subject of investment migration, whose work is cited in the Economist, Bloomberg, Fortune, Forbes, Newsweek, and Business Insider. Norwegian by birth, Christian has spent the last 16 years in the United States, China, Spain, and Portugal.