What is the difference between permanent residence and citizenship?

  • Permanent residence permits: Grant the right to settle permanently in the issuing jurisdiction, and that jurisdiction alone. In the case of Schengen countries, it also grants the right to travel freely within the Schengen border union. PRs do not grant voting rights or the right to consular assistance.
  • Citizenships: In addition to granting the right of permanent settlement in the issuing country, citizenships also bestow a wide range of benefits, such as the right to vote (although not always) and the right to consular services. Unlike residence permits (permanent or temporary) citizenships are also – in many cases, but not all – hereditary. Citizenship in an EU country further grants the right of permanent settlement in all EU member states.